Scrambling, rampant, sprawling shrub, to 4 m high. Fl. pink/white, Nov to Dec or Jan to Feb. Grey sand, red-brown gravelly loam, red clay loam, granite, limestone. Hillsides, along river banks and watercourses, in roadside drains.
- IBRA Regions
- Jarrah Forest, Swan Coastal Plain, Warren.
- IBRA Subregions
- Northern Jarrah Forest, Perth, Southern Jarrah Forest, Warren.
- IMCRA Regions
- Leeuwin-Naturaliste, WA South Coast.
- Local Government Areas (LGAs)
- Albany, Augusta Margaret River, Bridgetown-Greenbushes, Collie, Denmark, Donnybrook-Balingup, Kalamunda, Manjimup, Mundaring, Murray, Nannup, Plantagenet, Serpentine-Jarrahdale, Swan, Waroona.
Management Notes (for the Swan NRM Region)
Alternative Names. Bramble.
General Biology. Growth form. Shrub. Reproduction. Seed, stem layering, suckers. Dispersal. Birds, mammals, water, foxes. Time to first flowering. 2 years. Vegetative regeneration strategy. Resprouts, produces root suckers, stem layering. Seedbank persistence. Soil, short, days-1 year. Fire response. Can regenerate from roots following fire, cool fire will result in rapid regrowth from crown, hot fire will kill crown, but rapid regrowth will occur from root suckers.
Notes. In 2004/2005 herbarium collections of blackberry were made across the state as part of a NRM project to determine the overall distribution and incidence of weedy blackberry taxa. It identified WA has several weedy Rubus species, with no native Rubus species. For further information on identification refer to Barker and Barker (2005) Blackberry: an identification tool to introduced & native Rubus in Australia [CD-ROM] or CSIRO (2005) Field guide for the identification of WA blackberry. R. anglocandicans was previously misidentified as R. discolor in Western Australia and as R. procerus in south-eastern Australia. It is the most common, widespread and dominant weedy blackberry in WA. Occurs from Perth to Albany. Forms dense, impenetrable thickets that crowd out native plants and increase fire risk. Susceptible to the rust Phragmidium violaceum. At one site near Perth it co-occurs with R. laudatus and R. ulmifoloius, indicating the ability of all three species to colonise the same habitat.
Additional information. Origin. Central/eastern Europe. History of use/introduction. Garden escape. Similar exotic species. R. ulmifolius, R. laudatus.
Suggested method of management and control. Spray with metsulfuron methyl 1 g/10 L + the wetting agent Endose® at 30 ml/10 L, in summer-autumn. Will require follow up for a number of years. For small infestations or in sensitive areas hand pull small plants or seedlings. For larger plants cut and paint with 20-50% glyphosate or slash canes. Spray regrowth at 50cm with metsulfuron methyl 1 g/10 L + the wetting agent Endose® at 30 ml/10 L, in summer-autumn. Read the manufacturers' labels and material safety data sheets before using herbicides. For further information consult the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority to determine the status of permits for your situation or state.
Legend: Y = Yes, regularly, O = Occasionally, U = Uncertain, referred by others but not confirmed.
- Agriculture and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand, Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Forestry Ministers (2001) Weeds of national significance. Blackberry ( Rubus fruticosus L. agg.) strategic plan. National Weeds Strategy Executive Committee, Launceston.
- Barker, R.M. & Barker, W.R. (2005) Blackberry: an identification tool to introduced and native Rubus in Australia. Edn 1.00. State Herbarium of South Australia, Adelaide.
- Brown, K. & Brooks, K. (2002) Bushland Weeds: A Practical Guide to their Management. Environmental Weeds Action Network, Greenwood.
- Bruzzese, E. & Lane, M. (1996) The blackberry management book. Keith Turnbull Research Institute, Melbourne.
- CRC Weed Management (2003) Weeds of National Significance, Weed Management Guide, Blackberry - Rubus fruticosus aggregate. Department of Environment and Heritage.
- Evans, K.J. & Weber, H.E. (2003) Rubus anglocandicans (Rosaceae) is the most widespread taxon of European blackberry in Australia. Australian Systematic Botany, 16 (4): 527-537.
- Hussey, B.M.J., Keighery, G.J., Dodd, J., Lloyd, S.G. & Cousens, R.D. (2007) Western Weeds. A guide to the weeds of Western Australia. 2nd Edition. The Plant Protection Society of Western Australia, Victoria Park.
- Keeley, J.E., Baer-Keeley, M. & Fotheringham, C.J. (2005) Alien plant dynamics following fire in Mediterranean-climate California. Ecological Applications, 15 (6): 2109-2125.
- Moore, J., Reeves, A. & Merewether, S. (2008) Integrated management of blackberry in Western Australia. In Proceedings of the 16th Australian Weeds Conference, Cairns Convention Centre, North Queensland, Australia, 18-22 May, 2008, pages 500-502.
- Moore, J.H. & Wheeler, J. (2008) Southern weeds and their control. DAFWA Bulletin 4744.
- Muyt, A. (2001) Bush invaders of South-East Australia: A guide to the identification and control of environmental weeds found in South-East Australia. R.G. & F.J. Richardson, Melbourne.
- Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (2008) Plant threats to Pacific ecosystems. URL: http://www.hear.org/pier/scinames.htm - Accessed January 2010.
- Parsons, W.T. & Cuthbertson, E.G. (2001) Noxious weeds of Australia. 2nd Edition. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
- Reeves, A. (2009) Ongoing management of the blackberry buffer zone. In Proceedings of the Western Australian Weeds Conference 2009: Fostering Solutions for the Future. Land & Water Australia, Weeds Society of WA & Botanic Gardens & Parks Authority Western Australian Ecology Centre, Bold Park, Floreat, Western Australia.
- Yeoh, P.B., Scott, J.K., Batchelor, K.L., Morin, L., Fontanini, L., McFarlane, T.D., Wilson, I.J, Moore, J.H., Merks, P.F. & Taylor, M. (2006) Weedy blackberry and raspberry species in Western Australia and strategies for their management (Draft). CSIRO.